Adventure Tourism includes at least two of the following three aspects: Physical activity, interaction with nature, and cultural learning or exchange (ATTA, 2006). There are different types of adventure tourism, ranging from high-risk activities such as climbing or caving (hard adventure) to low-risk activities like ecotourism and volunteer tourism (soft adventure).
Community-based tourism is “a form of ecotourism that emphasizes the development of local communities and allows for local residents to have substantial control over, and involvement in, its development and management, and a major proportion of the benefits remain within the community. Community-based ecotourism should foster sustainable use and collective responsibility, but it also embraces individual initiatives within the community” (Bortner, 2013).
Ecotourism is “responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment, sustains the well-being of the local people, and involves interpretation and education” (TIES, 2015).
Empowerment is “a process ‘through which individuals, households, local groups, communities, regions and nations shape their own lives and the kind of society in which they live’” (France, 1997c in Scheyvens, 2002)
Ni-Vanuatu is “a demonym used to refer to all Melanesian ethnicities originating in Vanuatu. It also refers, more generally, to nationals and citizens of Vanuatu, whatever their ethnicity. This recent coinage builds on the particle ni, which in some indigenous languages encodes the genitive, similar to the English ‘of’. Thus Ni-Vanuatu literally means ‘of Vanuatu’.” (World Heritage Encyclopedia, 2015)
Pro-poor tourism (PPT) is “tourism that results in increased net benefits for poor people. PPT is not a specific product or niche sector but an approach to tourism development and management. It enhances the linkages between tourism businesses and poor people, so that tourism’s contribution to poverty reduction is increased and poor people are able to participate more effectively in product development” (Pro-Poor Tourism Partnership, 2004).
Sustainable Tourism is “tourism that takes full account of its current and future economic, social and environmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment, and host communities” (UNEP & UNWTO, 2005).
Voluntourism is the intersection of international volunteering and tourism (Clemmons, 2012). “Volunteer tourism is a form of travel which involves volunteering for a worthy, often charitable cause“ (Tomazos, 2010).